On this page you can find abstracts of selected articles on information ethics and machine ethics (only available in English).
Co-Robots as Care Robots
Cooperation and collaboration robots, co-robots or cobots for short, are an integral part of factories. For example, they work closely with the fitters in the automotive sector, and everyone does what they do best. However, the novel robots are not only relevant in production and logistics, but also in the service sector, especially where proximity between them and the users is desired or unavoidable. For decades, individual solutions of a very different kind have been developed in care. Now experts are increasingly relying on co-robots and teaching them the special tasks that are involved in care or therapy. This article presents the advantages, but also the disadvantages of co-robots in care and support, and provides information with regard to human-robot interaction and communication. The article is based on a model that has already been tested in various nursing and retirement homes, namely Lio from F&P Robotics, and uses results from accompanying studies. The authors can show that co-robots are ideal for care and support in many ways. Of course, it is also important to consider a few points in order to guarantee functionality and acceptance.
Keywords: Robot Ethics; Information Ethics; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Care Robots; Human-computer Interaction
Bendel, Oliver. Co-Robots as Care Robots. Will be published in the Proceedings of the AAAI 2020 Spring Symposium „Applied AI in Healthcare: Safety, Community, and the Environment“. Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, March 23–25, 2020.
Care Robots with Sexual Assistance Functions
Residents in retirement and nursing homes have sexual needs just like other people. However, the semi-public situation makes it difficult for them to satisfy these existential concerns. In addition, they may not be able to meet a suitable partner or find it difficult to have a relationship for mental or physical reasons. People who live or are cared for at home can also be affected by this problem. Perhaps they can host someone more easily and discreetly than the residents of a health facility, but some elderly and disabled people may be restricted in some ways. This article examines the opportunities and risks that arise with regard to care robots with sexual assistance functions. First of all, it deals with sexual well-being. Then it presents robotic systems ranging from sex robots to care robots. Finally, the focus is on care robots, with the author exploring technical and design issues. A brief ethical discussion completes the article. The result is that care robots with sexual assistance functions could be an enrichment of the everyday life of people in need of care, but that we also have to consider some technical, design and moral aspects.
Keywords: Robot Ethics; Information Ethics; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Care Robots; Sex Robots; Human-computer Interaction
Bendel, Oliver. Care Robots with Sexual Assistance Functions. Will be published in the Proceedings of the AAAI 2020 Spring Symposium „Applied AI in Healthcare: Safety, Community, and the Environment“. Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, March 23–25, 2020.
The BESTBOT Project
The young discipline of machine ethics both studies and creates moral (or immoral) machines. The BESTBOT is a chatbot that recognizes problems and conditions of the user with the help of text analysis and facial recognition and reacts morally to them. It can be seen as a moral machine with some immoral implications. The BESTBOT has two direct predecessor projects, the GOODBOT and the LIEBOT. Both had room for improvement and advancement; thus, the BESTBOT project used their findings as a basis for its development and realization. Text analysis and facial recognition in combination with emotion recognition have proven to be powerful tools for problem identification and are part of the new prototype. The BESTBOT enriches machine ethics as a discipline and can solve problems in practice. At the same time, with new solutions of this kind come new problems, especially with regard to privacy and informational autonomy, which information ethics must deal with.
Keywords: Machine Ethics; Robot Ethics; Information Ethics; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Chatbots; Human-computer Interaction
Bendel, Oliver; Studer, David; Richards, Bradley. The BESTBOT Project. In: Bendel, Oliver (Hrsg.). Handbuch Maschinenethik (Springer Reference Geisteswissenschaften). Springer, Wiesbaden 2019.
This article deals first of all with the current and future technical possibilities of projecting three-dimensional human shapes into space or into vessels. Then examples for holograms from literature and film are mentioned, from the fictionality of past and present. Furthermore, the reality of the present and the future of holograms is included, i.e. what technicians and scientists all over the world are trying to achieve, in eager efforts to close the enormous gap between the imagined and the actual. A very specific aspect is of interest here, namely the idea that holograms serve us as objects of desire, that they step alongside love dolls and sex robots and support us in some way. Different aspects of fictional and real holograms are analyzed, namely pictoriality, corporeality, motion, size, beauty and speech capacity. There are indications that three-dimensional human shapes could be considered as partners, albeit in a very specific sense. The genuine advantages and disadvantages need to be investigated further, and a theory of holograms in love could be developed.
Keywords: Hologram; Holography; Science Fiction; Sex Robot; Love Doll; Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. Hologram Girl. In: Zue, Yuefang; Fischer, Martin (eds.). AI Love You: Developments on human-robot intimate relationships. Springer, Cham 2019.
Are Robot Tax, Basic Income or Basic Property Solutions to the Social Problems of Automation?
Automation is advancing relentlessly. Already decades ago, digitization was its partner. In the industry, innovative robots, for example co-robots, are used. Service robots begin to spread in various areas. Systems of artificial intelligence perform tasks of all sorts, even creative activities. The studies on the development of the labor market reach different results. In any case, it can be said that certain jobs will disappear and many people will have to do without their familiar work. It can also be assumed that in many areas less human work has to be performed on behalf (e.g., for customers and employers). As possible solutions to economic and social problems, an unconditional basic income and a robot tax are suggested. This paper presents, discusses and criticizes these approaches in the context of automation and digitization. Moreover, it develops a relatively unknown proposal, unconditional basic property, and presents its potentials as well as its risks.
Keywords: Basic Income; Basic Property; Robot Tax; Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. Are Robot Tax, Basic Income or Basic Property Solutions to the Social Problems of Automation? In: Kido, Takashi; Takadama, Keiki (eds.). Proceedings of the AAAI 2019 Spring Symposium „Interpretable AI for Well-Being: Understanding Cognitive Bias and Social Embeddedness“ (AAAI-IAW 2019). Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, March 25–27, 2019. Via http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2448/.
The Morality Menu
Machine ethics produces moral and immoral machines. The morality is usually fixed, e.g. by programmed meta-rules and rules. The machine is thus capable of certain actions, not others. However, another approach is the morality menu. With this, the owner or user transfers his or her own morality onto the machine. The machine behaves in the same way as he or she would behave, in detail. The author developed several artifacts of machine ethics at his university from 2013 to 2018. For one of them, he designed a morality menu that has not yet been implemented. Another concept exists for a virtual assistant that can make reservations and orders for its owner more or less independently. In this article, the author introduces the idea of the morality menu in the context of two concrete machines. Then he discusses advantages and disadvantages and presents possibilities for improvement. A morality menu can be a valuable extension for certain moral machines.
Keywords: Machine Ethics; Machine Morality; Moral Machines; Morality Menu
Bendel, Oliver. The Morality Menu. 3 February 2019. Available as PDF. Translation of: Oliver Bendel. Das Moralmenü: Moralische Maschinen mit einer Stellvertretermoral. In: Telepolis, 27 January 2019. Via https://www.heise.de/tp/features/Das-Moralmenue-4285297.html.
The Spy who Loved and Nursed Me: Robots and AI Systems in Healthcare from the Perspective of Information Ethics
Robots in the health sector are important, valuable innovations and supplements. As therapy and nursing robots, they take care of us and come close to us. In addition, other service robots are widespread in nursing and retirement homes and hospitals. With the help of their sensors, all of them are able to recognize us, to examine and classify us, and to evaluate our behavior and appearance. Some of these robots will pass on our personal data to humans and machines. They invade our privacy and challenge the informational autonomy. This is a problem for the institutions and the people that needs to be solved. The paper presents robot types in the health sector, along with their technical possibilities, including their sensors and their artificial intelligence capabilities. Against this background, moral problems are discussed, especially from the perspective of information ethics and with respect to privacy and informational autonomy. One of the results shows that such robots can improve the personal autonomy, but the informational autonomy is endangered in an area where privacy has a special importance. At the end of the article, solutions are proposed from various disciplines and perspectives.
Keywords: Care Robots, Nursing Robots, Healthcare, Ethics, Information Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. The Spy who Loved and Nursed Me: Robots and AI Systems in Healthcare from the Perspective of Information Ethics. In: Telepolis, 17 December 2018. Via http://www.heise.de/tp/features/The-Spy-who-Loved-and-Nursed-Me-4251919.html.
Service Robots from the Perspectives of Information and Machine Ethics
Service robots are becoming ever more pervasive in society-at-large. They are present in our apartments and our streets. They are found in hotels, hospitals, and care homes, in shopping malls, and on company grounds. In doing so, various challenges arise. Service robots consume energy, they take up space in ever more crowded cities, sometimes leading us to collide with them and stumble over them. They monitor us, they communicate with us and retain our secrets on their data drives. In relation to this, they can be hacked, kidnapped and abused. The first section of this article presents different types of service robots – like security, transport, therapy, and care robots – and discusses the moral implications that arise from their existence. Information ethics and machine ethics will form the basis for interrogating these moral implications. The second section discusses the draft for a patient declaration, by which people can determine whether and how they want to be treated and cared for by a robot. However, individual specifications may violate personal interests or the business interests of the hospital or nursing home. The author argues such a patient declaration will be vital in a world ever more impacted by these service robots.
Keywords: Service Robots, Ethics, Information Ethics, Machine Ethics, Moral Machines, Patient Declaration
Bendel, Oliver. Service Robots from the Perspectives of Information and Machine Ethics. In: Coeckelbergh, Mark; Loh, Janina; Funk, Michael; Seibt, Johanna; Nørskov, Marco (eds.). Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and Public Space. IOS Press, Amsterdam 2018. pp. 12 – 18. Available as PDF.
From GOODBOT to BESTBOT
Machine ethics researches the morality of semiautono-mous and autonomous machines. Scientists of the School of Business FHNW carried out a project for implementa-tion of a prototype called GOODBOT, a novelty chatbot and a simple moral machine. One of its meta rules was it should not lie unless not lying would hurt the user. It was a stand-alone solution, not linked with other systems and not internet- or web-based. In the LIEBOT project, the mentioned meta rule was reversed. This web-based chat-bot, programmed in 2016, could lie systematically. It was an example of a simple immoral machine. A follow-up project in 2018 is going to develop the BESTBOT, con-sidering the restrictions of the GOODBOT and the oppor-tunities of the LIEBOT. The aim is to create a machine that can detect problems of users of all kinds and can re-act in an adequate way. It should have textual, auditory and visual capabilities. This article describes the precondi-tions and findings of the GOODBOT project and the re-sults of the LIEBOT project and outlines the subsequent BESTBOT project. A reflection from the perspective of information ethics is included.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Ethics, Moral Machines, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Chatbot, Face Recognition
Bendel, Oliver. From GOODBOT to BESTBOT. In: The 2018 AAAI Spring Symposium Series. AAAI Press, Palo Alto 2018. pp. 2 – 9. Available as PDF.
The Uncanny Return of Physiognomy
Face recognition is the automated recognition of a face or the automated identification, measuring and description of features of a face. In the 21st century, it is increasingly attempted, whether consciously or unconsciously, to connect to the pseudoscience of physiognomy, which has its origins in ancient times. From the appearance of persons, a conclusion is drawn to their inner self, and attempts are made to identify character traits, personality traits and temperament, or political and sexual orientation. Also biometrics plays a role here. It was founded in the eighteenth century, when physiognomy under the lead of Johann Caspar Lavater had its dubious climax. In this article, the basic principles of this topic are elaborated; selected projects from research and practice are presented and, from an ethical perspective, the possibilities of face recognition are subjected to fundamental critique in this context, including the above examples.
Keywords: Face Recognition, Physiognomy, Artificial Intelligence, Information Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. The Uncanny Return of Physiognomy. In: The 2018 AAAI Spring Symposium Series. AAAI Press, Palo Alto 2018. pp. 11 – 17. Available as PDF.
SSML for Sex Robots
In love and sex, the voice is a decisive factor. It not only matters what is said, but also how it is said. Pitch, volume and personal expression are important to attract and retain potential partners. The same goes for sex robots and love dolls, and is true for chatbots and virtual assistants with sexual orientation as well. If you are not working with ordinary recordings, they all need artificial voices (if you decide to use voices at all). The synthetization of voices, or speech synthesis, has been an object of interest for centuries. Today, it is mostly realized with a text-to-speech system (TTS), an automaton that interprets and reads aloud. This system refers to text which is available for instance in a knowledge base or on a website. Different procedures have been established to adjust the artificial voice. This article examines how the Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) can be used for sex robots and love servants. Existing tags, attributes and values are categorized in the present context and new ones are proposed to support the purpose of the special machines. In addition, a short ethical discussion takes place.
Keywords: Sex Robots, Robot Sex, Artificial Intelligence, Text-to-Speech System, Speech Synthesis Markup Language, Information Ethics, Roboethics
Bendel. Oliver. SSML for Sex Robots. In: Cheok, Adrian David; Levy, David (eds.). Love and Sex with Robots. Third International Conference, LSR 2017, London, UK, December 19-20, 2017, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham 2018. pp. 1 – 11.
Co-robots from an Ethical Perspective
Cooperation and collaboration robots work hand in hand with their human colleagues. This contribution focuses on the use of these robots in production. The co-robots (to use this umbrella term) are defined and classified, and application areas, examples of applications and product examples are mentioned. Against this background, a discussion on moral issues follows, both from the perspective of information and technology ethics and business ethics. Central concepts of these fields of applied ethics are referred to and transferred to the areas of application. In moral terms, the use of cooperation and collaboration robots involves both opportunities and risks. Co-robots can support workers and save them from strains and injuries, but can also displace them in certain activities or make them dependent. Machine ethics is included at the margin; it addresses whether and how to improve the decisions and actions of (partially) autonomous systems with respect to morality. Cooperation and collaboration robots are a new and interesting subject for it.
Keywords: Cooperation Robots, Collaboration Robots, Co-Robots, Cobots, Information Ethics, Technology Ethics, Business Ethics, Machine Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. Co-Robots from an Ethical Perspective. In: Dornberger, Rolf (ed.). Information Systems and Technology 4.0: New Trends in the Age of Digital Change. Springer International Publishing, Cham 2018. pp. 275 – 288.
Sex Robots and Robot Sex from an Ethical perspective
Real sex robots, unlike sex toys, have yet to establish themselves. Admittedly, the development of these special service robots is still in its early stages, and we can expect this much-loved object of societal and media debates to become commonplace at some point. Perhaps there’s more robot sex than we’d like to think: this sex doesn’t just have to be with sex robots, but also with service robots that were originally meant to perform other tasks. This article defines central concepts related to this topic, explicitly asking questions regarding the possibility of robot sex without sex robots. There is an introduction to machine ethics that will examine the possibilities of machine morality. In addition, information ethics and technology ethics will be considered in terms of the light they shed on the design and use of robots for sexual activity. There will then be a conclusion and discussion of future prospects.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Sexual Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Sex Robots, Robots Sex, Love Dolls
Bendel. Oliver. Sex Robots and Robot Sex from an Ethical perspective. In: Otto, Philipp; Gräf, Eike. 3TH1CS: A Reinvention of Ethics in the Digital Age? iRIGHTS media, Berlin 2017. pp. 30 – 42.
The Synthetization of Human Voices
The synthetization of voices, or speech synthesis, has been an object of interest for centuries. It is mostly realized with a text-to-speech system (TTS), an automaton that interprets and reads aloud. This system refers to text available for instance on a website or in a book, or entered via popup menu on the website, and reads it aloud. Today, just a few minutes of samples are enough in order to be able to imitate a speaker convincingly in all kinds of statements. This article abstracts from actual products and actual technological realization. Rather, after a short historical outline of the synthetization of voices, exemplary applications of this kind of technology are gathered for promoting the development, and potential applications are discussed critically in order to be able to limit them if necessary. The ethical and legal challenges should not be underestimated, in particular with regard to informational and personal autonomy and the trustworthiness of media.
Keywords: Speech Synthesis, Text-to-speech System, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Information Ethics, Machine Ethics
Bendel, Oliver. The Synthetization of Human Voices. In: AI & SOCIETY, July 26, 2017 („online first“ article on SpringerLink). Via http://rdcu.be/uvxm.
LADYBIRD: the Animal-Friendly Robot Vacuum Cleaner
More and more autonomous and semi-autonomous machines make decisions that have moral implications. Machine ethics as a discipline examines the possibilities and limits of moral machines. In this context, the author developed various design studies and thus submitted proposals for their appearance and functions. He focused on animal-friendly machines which make morally sound decisions, and chatbots with specific skills. For the design of moral machines decision trees are still little used. This article focuses on a service robot which shall spare beneficial insects – a vacuum cleaner called LADYBIRD – and an annotated decision tree modelled for this objective will be presented. The outlined work leads to a practice project that was proposed in spring 2017 at the School of Business FHNW.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Robot Vacuum Cleaner
Bendel, Oliver. LADYBIRD: the Animal-Friendly Robot Vacuum Cleaner. In: The 2017 AAAI Spring Symposium Series. AAAI Press, Palo Alto 2017. Available as PDF.
Towards Kant Machines
For some years now, ethics no longer only means human ethics. The young discipline of machine ethics researches the morality of semi-autonomous and autonomous systems like self-driving cars, robots and drones. Interactive software systems such as chatbots are also relevant. In 2013, the School of Business at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW) implemented a prototype of the GOODBOT, which is a novelty chatbot and a simple moral machine. One of its meta-rules was that it should not lie unless not lying would hurt the user. In a follow-up project in 2016, the LIEBOT was developed, a kind of Munchausen machine. This article describes the back-ground and the foundations of this project and lists the chatbot’s strategies of lying. Then it discusses how Munchausen machines as immoral machines can contribute to the construction and optimization of moral machines, for example Kant machines, which prefer the truth. The LIEBOT serves as a contribution to machine ethics as well as a critical review of electronic language-based systems and services.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Chatbot, Munchausen Machines
Bendel, Oliver. Towards Kant Machines. In: The 2017 AAAI Spring Symposium Series. AAAI Press, Palo Alto 2017. Available as PDF.
Sex Robots from the Perspective of Machine Ethics
This contribution explains firstly the terms and the phenomena of sex robots and robot sex and the foundations of machine ethics. Secondly it poses questions related to sex robots as moral agents, from a general and a specific perspective, aiming at assisting manufacturers and developers. By using the questions, the opportunities and risks can be discussed in a structured manner. Thirdly, the fields of applied ethics are included to work out the implications for humans as moral patients. At the end, the author summarizes the findings. Machine ethics, from his point of view, may help to construct sex robots and service robots with special capabilities which are moral machines in their appearance and in their behaviour and which may allow some people to complement their sexual activities and to lead a fulfilling life. The fields of applied ethics may be beneficial with respect to the adequate use of sex robots.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Sexual Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Sex Robots, Robots Sex, Love Dolls
Bendel, Oliver. Sex Robots from the Perspective of Machine Ethics. In: Cheok, Adrian David; Devlin, Kate; Levy, David (eds.). Love and Sex with Robots. Second International Conference, LSR 2016, London, UK, December 19-20, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham 2017. pp. 1 – 10.
Annotated Decision Trees for Simple Moral Machines
Autonomization often follows after the automization on which it is based. More and more machines have to make decisions with moral implications. Machine ethics, which can be seen as an equivalent of human ethics, analyses the chances and limits of moral machines. So far, decision trees have not been commonly used for modelling moral machines. This article proposes an approach for creating annotated decision trees, and specifies their central components. The focus is on simple moral machines. The chances of such models are illustrated with the example of a self-driving car that is friendly to humans and animals. Finally the advantages and disadvantages are discussed and conclusions are drawn.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Autonomous Car, Self-driving Car
Bendel, Oliver. Annotated Decision Trees for Simple Moral Machines. In: The 2016 AAAI Spring Symposium Series. AAAI Press, Palo Alto 2016. pp. 195 – 201.
Considerations about the relationship between animal and machine ethics
Ethics researches morality in respect to humans and animals. Usually it implies human morality, therefore the focus is on human-human relationships (generally in ethics) and human-animal relationships (in animal ethics). Ethics can also deal with the morality of machines such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), robots and agents or of self-driving cars and computers in automated trading, in other words more or less autonomous systems and programs. Machine ethics almost exclusively concentrates on machine-human relationships rather than on machine-animal relationships. Before this background, this article contributes some basic considerations about the relationship between animal and machine ethics.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Animal Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design
Bendel, Oliver. Considerations about the relationship between animal and machine ethics. In: AI & SOCIETY, 31 (1), 2016. pp. 103 – 108. (December 2013 as „online first“ article on SpringerLink)
Robots between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea
This article presents classic dilemmas and transfers them to the information age with special focus on the problem-ridden use of chatbots, robots, drones and self-driving cars. Solution concepts are developed from the perspective of machine ethics among others. It turns out that classic dilemmas are useful for mastering today’s challenges and helpful for discussing the decision-making options of partly or fully autonomous systems and for sensitizing robotics, artificial intelligence and computer science to such matters in order to optimize their results and products.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Dilemma
Bendel, Oliver. Robots between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea. In: Liinc em Revista, 2 (2015) 11. pp. 410 – 417. Via http://revista.ibict.br/liinc/index.php/liinc/article/view/828.
Reflections on the Development and the Design of Medical and Care Robots
There is a fundamental transformation in the field of health care: operation robots, therapy robots, care robots and sex robots, which can be characterized as medical and care robots (MCR), become more and more indispensable. Surgical robots are similar to industrial robots. Therapy, care and sex robots, however, often have a body and a locomotor system, and frequently resemble animals or human beings. Consequently, some of them can not only perform actions, but have a certain appearance, they can understand the human language and even write or talk, respectively utter sounds. Accordingly, the morality of these machines consists in their actions, in their appearance (including gestures and facial expression), and in their (natural) language skills. This contribution is committed to the findings of machine ethics and raises some thoughts for the development and design of moral MCR, with a focus on actions and appearance, as well as on the (natural) language skills. Using the literature and own research and considerations, appropriate meta-rules are being established, and central problem areas are identified without making concrete technical and design specifications. The problem descriptions allow robotics experts, computer scientists and designers to take into account social and moral aspects and to improve the MCR from an ethical perspective.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Medical Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Care Robot
Bendel, Oliver. Reflections on the Development and the Design of Medical and Care Robots. In: gbs-schweiz.org, March 5, 2015. Via http://gbs-schweiz.org/blog/development-design-medical-care-robots/.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Animals
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are widely used. Some support and inform the driver. Others relieve him or her of certain tasks – and transform the human-guided system into a semi-autonomous one. For some years also fully autonomous systems have been on the roads, so-called self-driving cars, as prototypes of companies and within research projects. From the perspective of ethics – both of the special fields of ethics like animal ethics, information ethics and technology ethics and of machine ethics which can be understood as a counterpart to human ethics –, advanced driver assistance systems raise various questions. The aim of this paper is to derive suggestions from animal ethics and other disciplines for the improvement and development of the systems. The basis are literature analysis and own classifications and considerations. The result is that there are many possibilities to expand existing systems and to develop new functions in the context with the aim to reduce the number of animal victims.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Animal Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Autonomous Car, Self-Driving Car, Advanced Driver Assistance System
Bendel, Oliver. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Animals. In: Künstliche Intelligenz, October 9, 2014 („online first“ article on SpringerLink).
Towards Machine Ethics
In this paper, the field of machine ethics is explored. Firstly, the concept and the classification of machine ethics are clarified. Secondly, the main topics of machine ethics are described; a distinction is made between different kinds of systems and situations in which they act. Thirdly, three classical normative models are described and estimated relating to their suitability for machine processing. It was found that all of these models can be used in machine ethics and be combined with the case-based and observation-based approach.
Keywords: Machine Ethics, Robot Ethics, Animal Ethics, Ethics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Ethics by Design, Autonomous Car, Self-Driving Car, Advanced Driver Assistance System
Bendel, Oliver. Towards Machine Ethics. In: Michalek, Tomáš; Hebáková, Lenka; Hennen, Leonhard et al. (eds.). Technology Assessment and Policy Areas of Great Transitions. 1st PACITA Project Conference, March 13 – 15, 2013. Prague 2014. pp. 321 – 326.